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Types by Chemistry

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Chemistry

Lithium Iron Phosphate

Nominal Cell Voltage

3.2 - 3.3

Energy Density (WH/KG)

990 - 110

Energy Density (WH/L)

220

Cycle Life @20c

1000 and Up

Lithium Iron Phosphate

  • Very expensive.
  • High energy density.
  • Very common in power tools and medical devices.
  • Very low rate of self-discharge. Capable of very-high discharge rates.
  • More volatile than other chemistries if not manufactured with rigorous quality standards.
  • Additional DOT and/or IATA testing regulations will apply.

Benefits of LiFePO4

Generally, large capacity (>20 Ah) sturdy cells designed for electric vehicle or electricity energy storage applications. It features lithium iron phosphate chemistry for exceptional cycle life and calendar life. It is available in designs optimized for either high-energy density or high power density.

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Chemistry

Lithium-ion

Nominal Cell Voltage

3.6-3.7

Energy Density (WH/KG)

100-250

Energy Density (WH/L)

250-360

Cycle Life @20c

300-500

Lithium-Ion

  • Can be very expensive, depending on form factor.
  • Very high energy density.
  • Very common in laptop computers, moderate to high-end digital cameras and camcorders, and cell phones.
  • Very low rate of self-discharge. Special cells within the Li-Ion family are capable of high discharge rates.
  • More volatile than other chemistries if not manufactured with rigorous quality standards.
  • Additional DOT and/or IATA testing regulations will apply.

Benefits of Li-Ion

Industrial standard 18650 cell form factor which is widely used in ordinary laptop PC or cordless power tool applications. ZEUS offers industry-leading specification and performance with optimal ZEUS-unique features, such as fast-charge capacity and ultra-long cycle life. It is available in designs optimized for either high-energy density or high power density.

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Chemistry

Lithium-Polymer

Nominal Cell Voltage

3.6 - 3.7

Energy Density (WH/KG)

130 - 200

Energy Density (WH/L)

300

Cycle Life @20c

300 - 100

Lithium-Polymer

  • This type has technologically evolved from lithium-ion batteries.
  • The primary difference is that the lithium salt electrolyte is not held in an organic solvent but in a liquid polymer composite such as polyethylene oxide or polyacr lonitrile.
  • The advantages of Li-ion polymer over the lithium-ion design include potentially lower cost of manufacture, adaptability to a wide variety of packaging shapes and ruggedness.
  • Additional DOT and/or IATA testing regulations will apply.

Benefits of Li-Polymer

The latest trend in lithium battery used in consumer electronic products and IT gadgets. It is flexible in footprint and capacity. Customers can participate to design the unique battery most-fitting its own application. Furthermore, it is lightweight and low-profile, perfect for trendy, thin design of laptop or tablet PCs. Optional ZEUS-unique features like fast-charge capability or ultra-long life-cycle are also available.

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Chemistry

Nickel-Cadmium

Nominal Cell Voltage

1.2

Energy Density (WH/KG)

40 - 60

Energy Density (WH/L)

50 - 150

Cycle Life @20c

1000 - 2000

Nickel-Cadmium

  • Inexpensive.
  • High/low drain, moderate energy density.
  • Can withstand very high discharge rates with virtually no loss of capacity.
  • Moderate rate of self-discharge. Reputed to suffer from memory effect (which is alleged to cause early failure).
  • Environmental hazard due to cadmium - use now virtually prohibited in Europe.

Benefits of NiCd

Excellent cycle life, long shelf-life, fast simple charge, low internal resistance, high discharge rate, worthy load, desirable low-temperature performance, forgiving if abused, easy storage and transportation. Low energy density, memory effect, high self-discharge, environmentally-unfriendly. Applications include: two-way radio, portable medical equipment, power tools, consumer products.

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Chemistry

Nickel-Metal Hydride

Nominal Cell Voltage

1.2

Energy Density (WH/KG)

30 - 80

Energy Density (WH/L)

140 - 300

Cycle Life @20c

500 - 1000

Nickel-Metal Hydride

  • Inexpensive.
  • Traditional chemistry has high energy density, but also a high rate of self-discharge.
  • Newer chemistry has low self-discharge rate, but also a 25% lower energy density.
  • Very heavy.
  • Used in some cars.

NiMH

High energy density, less prone to memory effect, easy storage and transportation, environmentally friendly, great for use in high-current applications. Short cycle life, limited discharge current, high internal resistance, more complex charge needed, high self-discharge, high-maintenance. Performance degrades when stored in elevated temperatures. Applications include: communication devices, emergency lighting, and consumer products.

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Chemistry

Sealed Lead Acid

Nominal Cell Voltage

2.1

Energy Density (WH/KG)

30 - 40

Energy Density (WH/L)

60 - 75

Cycle Life @20c

500 - 800

Sealed Lead Acid

  • Moderately expensive.
  • Moderate energy density.
  • Moderate rate of self-discharge. Higher discharge rates result in considerable loss of capacity. Does not suffer from memory effect.
  • Environmental hazard due to lead.

Benefits of SLA

ZEUS sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries are manufactured in a variety of sizes and amp hour (AH) ratings allowing for maximum flexibility in design and use. ZEUS SLAs can be discharged in any position due to their valve-regulated design. They require no special handling when shipping. These batteries provide reliable power output in a variety of applications due to their advanced plate and separator materials and precise electrolyte delivery. This results in greater efficiency and improved ability to recover from deep discharge.